The appearance, strength, and other properties of forged steel differ from those of stainless steel. In contrast to stainless steel, which is usually cast and polished, forged steel is rougher, and has a different molecular and grain makeup.
What is Stainless Steel?
The term ‘stainless’ was coined in the early days for steel used in cutlery. Steels that resist corrosion or oxidation are referred to as corrosion-resistant steels, which encompass a broad range of grades and types.
The chromium content of stainless steel must be at least 10.5%. The steels also have properties such as cryogenic toughness and formability enhanced by adding other alloying elements.
Application environments and applications that require corrosion-resistant materials commonly use stainless steel. First and foremost, corrosion resistance must be considered when choosing stainless steel grades. The requirements for service performance may include additional mechanical or physical properties. Forging, casting, and machining are among the metalworking processes that use stainless steel. In this section, we’ll examine closed die forging in detail by using stainless steel as an example.
What is forged steel?
Under extreme pressure, forged steel is fashioned from carbon and iron alloys to create a very hard, strong material. All types of materials have been created using it for thousands of years. A hydraulic hammer or specialized machine is used to forge steel today. Understanding the benefits of forged steel requires taking many factors into consideration.
Forged steel can be classified into three types. As the alloy is drawn out, its length increases and its width decreases. Setup steel has a length decrease and a width increase, the opposite of flat steel. The compression of squeezed-in steel is achieved by using closed dies that produce flow in all directions.
There are many industries that use forged steel. Various industries rely on forged steel, including manufacturing and pharmaceuticals. Generally, forged steel can enhance the strength and weight-consciousness of anything made from metal.
Forged steel and Stainless steel differences
Stainless steel is anti-corrosive and attractive in appearance due to its manufacturing process, which makes forged steel stronger. In building or manufacturing, you should be aware of these differences before you choose a process.
Metal items that are forged are hammered into place or forced into place through force. It strengthens steel by aligning its grain in one direction through this apparently abusive process. When stress is applied to forged steel, it is less susceptible to deformation and shattering than cast stainless steel. Another alternative is to machine forged pieces from solid blocks or casts, retaining much of their solidity.
A forged product has a uniform composition and structure. The thermal cycle and deformation process of forging result in metallurgical recrystallization and grain refinement. Resulting steel products are strengthened, particularly under impact and shear. Since the grain flows of forged steel are altered, conforming to the shape of the part, it is generally stronger and more reliable than castings and plate steel.
The advantages of forging steel include:
- The general consensus is that it is tougher than alternatives.
- Castings are less likely to be damaged by impact.
- Cold pouring and porosity don’t occur due to the nature of forging.
- Forgings are mechanically strong due to their tight grain structure.
- In order to obtain high-strength components, less expensive alloys are required.
Our testing on forged HRC 38-42 grinder inserts shows similar wear/wash performances to that of cast HRC 46-50 grinder inserts due to the tight grain structure. HRC 46-50 castings cannot handle the high-impact grinding of stainless steel because of their ductility.
The melted liquid is typically poured into a mold and allowed to cure until stainless steel is cast. Chromium is introduced to stainless steel, causing it to resist corrosion and rust. By mixing in other corrosion-resistant alloys, the carbon content is significantly reduced. There are two types of stainless steel: 316L and 918L, with the latter becoming increasingly susceptible to shattering and deformation under extreme pressure and impact.
The advantages of Stainless steel include:
Corrosion Resistance –
The corrosion-resistant properties of Stainless Steel are attributed to the alloying element chrome. High-alloyed grades resist corrosion in most acids, alkaline solutions, and chlorine-bearing environments, making their properties useful in process plants. Low-alloyed grades resist corrosion in atmospheric and pure water environments; high-alloyed grades are corrosion-resistant in most acids, alkaline solutions, and chlorine-bearing environments.
Fire and Heat Resistance –
Nickel-alloyed and high-chromium alloys resist scaling at high temperatures and retain high strength. Aircraft and aerospace applications often use stainless steel for heat exchangers, super-heaters, boilers, feedwater heaters, valves, and mainstream lines.
The importance of cleanliness cannot be overstated. Hospitals, kitchens, and food processing plants choose stainless steel for its easy cleaning ability.
Aesthetic Appearance –
Stainless steel has an attractive and modern appearance thanks to its bright, easily maintained surface.
Strength-to-Weight Advantage –
Due to their work-hardening property, austenitic grades can be significantly strengthened via cold-working alone, while high-strength duplex grades can be reduced in thickness over conventional grades, resulting in significant cost savings.
Ease of Fabrication –
Stainless steel is as easy to cut, weld, bend, form, machine, assemble and fabricate as traditional steel thanks to modern steel-making techniques.
Impact Resistance –
Cryogenic applications are especially suited to steels of the 300 series because of their austenitic microstructure, which makes them highly tough at temperatures well below freezing.
Long-Term Value –
The life cycle cost should be considered along with material and production costs when considering the total cost. It is often the least expensive material option when looking at the total life cycle costs. Maintenance-free products with a long lifespan can save you money.
100% Recyclable –
The full life cycle of stainless steel is completed by over 50% of new stainless steel coming from old remelted scrap stainless steel.
Forged Steel Applications
As a result of its increased strength and lack of cosmetic considerations, forged steel is commonly used in industrial or other heavy-duty applications. There is a limit to the continuous sizes that can be made with forged steel, so larger sections need to be welded together. Steel must be pressed or hammered to form due to the extreme pressures it must endure.
Stainless Steel Applications
Many utensils, watches, and other parts that have to be corrosion-resistant, attractive, or both, are made from stainless steel. It is for these reasons, as well as the fact that stainless steel can be cast to nearly any shape, that stainless steel is preferred over forged steel. The corrosion- and rust-resistance of stainless steel makes it ideal for items such as sweat-wicking clothing, salty road equipment, and items that are constantly exposed to moisture.
Can you forge stainless steel?
Forging frequently uses stainless steel because of its resistance to heat and corrosion. A 304/304L stainless steel is most commonly used in forging, followed by 316/316L and ferritic stainless steel.
Is stainless steel good for forging?
The best type of steel to forge is stainless steel. This is due to the fact that stainless forged steel reacts extremely well in the forging process. In particular, its strength and corrosion resistance is enhanced by forging. Furthermore, forging creates a continuous grain flow throughout the part.
Can stainless steel be forged?
In terms of forged steel, stainless steel is one of the best. Forging stainless steel produces very good results because stainless steel reacts well with heat. A forging process enhances its strengths and corrosion resistance. As well as creating grain flow throughout the part, forging creates an efficient process.